Check out this informative Webinar with Jake Schlachter from Food Co-op Initiative and Peter Frank from Kensington Food Cooperative and Philadelphia Area Cooperative Alliance. They discuss several features of the platform, including event management, comprehensive member communication and tracking, and website development.
Please enjoy this webinar hosted by Margaret M. Bau - a Cooperative Development Specialist
Below, find an outline of Margaret's steps to start a member initiated cooperative business
How To Start A Member Initated Co-op
A Member Initiated Cooperative is dreamed up and explored by future members
Developers preparing feasibility studies and business plans often use a survey to gather quantitative and qualitative data. Surveys are helpful for other applications too. For example, a Center might want to understand client needs for strategic planning purposes. One of the most effective tools to do this is a survey. Taking the time to do it right will pay off with reliable responses.
Online surveys are being used with increasing frequency and commercial software such as Survey Monkey or Survey Gizmo are available. These make fielding a survey much easier with pre-formatted question types and example questions. Even with helpful software, designing a successful survey still requires thoughtful development. This Developer’s Corner focuses on tips for survey design.
A survey can fail to achieve a good response rate or produce worthless data for several reasons. The following are our top 10 hints for good surveys.
Make it short.
We all know this rule but more times than not when asked to review a survey, it is too long. Resist the urge to add too many questions. For an online survey, try for 10 questions. A survey that is too long will either discourage someone from starting or they will drop out part way through.
Look at each question with your final report in mind. Only include questions that directly shed light on what you want to learn. If the question seems like a minor contribution to the learning, leave it out.
Be sure to remove questions that require the respondent to have immediate access to specific information not readily available. Warn the respondent beforehand if they need specific information if the question is critical to your goals. Take out any questions that a respondent may not be willing to answer unless the information is absolutely crucial to what you need to know. For example, if knowing income is not critical, don’t ask about it.
Name it carefully.
This seems like a small hint, but the name of the survey should be catchy and inviting. What appears in the tagline or in the subject line of an email soliciting respondents and can be a “make it or break it” phrase for the person deciding whether to spend the time responding. Grab their interest quickly. If you are aiming at respondents from a specific geography, put that in the title. Thus Warren County Local Food Survey is better as title than Food Cooperative Survey.
Provide clear motivation
Provide clear motivation on the “why” of the survey. Use short sentences and concise language.
Bad: This survey delves into the need for a local food cooperative to advance the local food system. We are a group of concerned citizens who want to expand access to local foods through a cooperatively owned grocery store.
Better: We need your opinion on the local food system in Warren County. Your answers will help us understand the gaps in local food access. One of our goals is to open a cooperatively owned grocery store. We are trying to understand if this is a good thing to do.
Order the questions carefully.
Start with the interesting questions that will attract interest. Put the simple questions upfront. Put personal questions like age or income which are more likely to discourage a response toward the end. Also, put open-ended questions toward the end. Get as much information as you can with easy to answer questions and put those requiring the respondent to write something later in the survey. That way you obtain some info before the respondent decides the time is up and opts out.
Stick to simple wording
Your respondents will likely have a wide range of education and reading ability. Make your questions concise both for the respondent’s understanding and to keep the response rate up. A good question should be short and straightforward.
Bad: What is the frequency of your trips to your primary grocery store in an average week?
Better: How many times a week do you usually shop for groceries?
Also avoid concepts that require too much background information for the respondent to easily answer. In addition, avoid questions that require too much recall.
Bad: In the past two years, how many times did you and/or your family members travel outside your community to grocery shop?
Better: In the past month, how many times did you drive over 5 miles to grocery shop?
Watch out for double negatives. They make the question difficult to understand.
Bad: My local grocery store is not failing my needs.
Better: My local grocery store meets my needs.
Be specific in the wording of your question to focus the information gathered.
Bad: Do you like your current grocery store?
Better: What do you like about your current grocery store? (Then provide a list)
In addition, voicing questions in the third person can be less threatening. Compare these two questions:
How do your colleagues feel about the current management decisions?
How do you feel about the current management decisions?
Structure the question to be singular.
Be careful that your question only asks about one thing. Look at each question to be sure you have focused on only one concept.
Bad: Availability of local and organic produce determines where I shop for groceries.
Better: Availability of local produce determines where I shop for groceries.
Better: Organic produce availability determines where I shop for groceries.
Bad: How organized and interesting was the speaker?
Better: How organized was the speaker? (provide a ranking from which to choose)
Better: Was the speaker interesting?
Cover all the answers
The response alternatives should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive.
Bad: How many times do you shop for groceries in an average week?
a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5 or more
Better: How many times do you shop for groceries in an average week?
a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4 f) 5 or more
Keep your bias out
Writing survey questions that bias respondents or leads them toward one answer violates a survey’s objectivity and biases the answers you get. Keeping the tone of your survey balanced and even-handed will ensure that you get people’s “true” attitudes instead of what they think you want to hear. This will help you make the right decisions, and alert you when you have a problem.
Bad: How awesome do you think a food cooperative would be in Sommersville?
Better: Do you think Sommersville needs a new grocery store?
Bad: Would you shop at a food cooperative if it offers quality food at lower prices?
Better: What would a food cooperative need to offer for you to shop there? (provide list)
Limit open-ended questions.
Open-ended questions will often ask more from your respondent than she or he is willing to give. Plus they make analysis much more difficult. What do you do with 600 written answers? You will spend a lot of time sorting them into categories for a summary. With that said, giving the respondent who has something more to say a place to do that is important.
Do a Pretest.
First develop your survey, and then choose a few people to fill it out. This pretest will highlight questions that are problematic or incomplete. It will also tell you if you are getting the appropriate data to meet your goals. Many a survey has been saved from failure by a pretest.
And remember to thank your respondent for helping.
By: Cathy A. Smith, Ph.D.
KDC has recently had multiple inquiries about the use of pools in the cooperative structure. Pools are sub-enterprises within the cooperative business and are a practice distinctive to cooperative-structured businesses. Pooling is a business agreement among a subset of cooperative members and allows for subgroups of members to work more efficiently together.
Normally each pool has a separate accounting system and a member’s patronage is based on the pool or pools in which a member participates. The member’s share of the pool proceeds is determined by the volume of product or service contributed and can be adjusted to reflect a premium or discount to account for quality differences. Losses (or profits) accrue to the pool members though the cooperative organization does ultimately remain liable for debts.
Although pool accounting can become quite complex, it basically requires that a separate account be established for each pool the cooperative operates. Records are kept on the amount of produce or service each member delivers to the pool. Direct and indirect costs associated with operating the pool are allocated to that pool.
Usually the cooperative enterprise would keep a percent of gross revenue from each pool for cooperative expenses. Successful pooling operations require considerable coordination between the cooperative and pool participants. This comes with expenses and the amount retained by the cooperative has to cover costs for the business to be sustainable.
Farm marketing cooperatives historically are the most common type of cooperative to use pools. Within the cooperative, farmer members with the same commodity pool their crops together and the cooperative markets the aggregated product. All the farmers in the pool would usually receive the same price (usually the average price) for their product. This type pool would probably have an expiration date, i.e. each season would be a different pool. For example, a marketing cooperative might have one pool for cranberry growers and one for blueberry producers. A vibrant example of pooling is the CROPP Cooperative who operates the Organic Valley and Organic Prairie brands. Check out www.farmers.coop or go to this page and look at their pools:www.farmers.coop/producer-pools/cropps-governance/. They have a Beef, Broiler, Dairy, Egg, Grower, Pork, Produce, and Soy Pool.
KDC is seeing the pooling concept being considered by other cooperative businesses. One example is a geographically dispersed set of farms who are organizing to establish local routes for food waste hauling to fuel their composting enterprises. The cooperative organizers are considering using a pool for each geographic cluster of routes. The co-op members receiving waste product would participate in the pool closest to their location. The pool member would receive the average “tipping” fee associated with his or her pool.
Another example of cooperative pools is a renewable-energy community-investment cooperative that wants to develop a variety of projects. The cooperative would allow members to join a particular investment pool covering a specific project. For example one pool might be funding a solar installation on a local church and another pool a wind-turbine installation. Pool members would be investing in the project associated with their pool. Gains or losses from the pool would be allocated to the pool members. This allows an advantage in member recruitment and fund raising by providing a defined project and expected outcome.
Pools are also used in the health-insurance cooperative area. This can occur where members of the cooperative, usually businesses, can combine with other similar business to form a single competitive purchasing pool for health benefits. Pooling is also used where the volatility of claim costs are managed by putting similar risk groups into pools.
To bylaw or not bylaw
A cooperative’s pooling policy should be detailed in the association’s governing documents – either through the bylaws or by Board policy. In either case, the Board of Directors is usually given the authority to establish the pooling specifics. Pooling arrangements can be adopted by a cooperative without a particular bylaw provision. Cooperative Boards can just develop and adopt a general board policy on the subject. However, if the startup cooperative is just establishing its bylaws and pooling is of interest, adding a bylaw addressing the pooling is prudent. The bylaw would normally give the Board the authority to create pools.
For additional background here are two USDA resources that address pooling:
USDA Cooperative Pooling Operations, RBS Research Report 166
Sample Legal Documents for Cooperatives, Cooperative Information Report 40, USDA
By: Cathy A. Smith, Ph.D.
One of the cooperative developer’s biggest challenges can be finding data. Frequently this need is related to feasibility studies or the due diligence process where insights into the market demographics along with potential sales estimates are required. Often the cooperative developer has to rely on publicly available data. This article covers two such places to look.
The most comprehensive source of publicly available information about customer demographics is provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Through the www.census.gov portal, a world of data is accessible. Beware that the interface and data offerings on census.gov are constantly changing, which can at times be frustrating. This article is going to focus on how to extract information through the 2014 version of American FactFinder. This does not mean it is the only way to access the data – but is just one path through the mountain of data.
Census data is available for various geographical distinctions, including state, county, and census tract (CT). The census tract level data is usually the most helpful since it is a smaller area than a county or zip code and the available data for the CT is usually complete. To access the American FactFinder go to factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml or type “American FactFinder” into your favorite search engine. Or go to the www.census.gov home page, click the Data tab and choose the Data Tools and Apps link. The American FactFinder should be the first one that comes up. Once at the FactFinder you can get data from the Economic Census, the American Community Survey, and the 2010 Census, among other options. Choose the Advanced Search option and click the “show me all” button.
With your list of census tracts of interest, just click into the Geography filter on the left hand side. There you can select geographic type and Census Tracts is an option. Choose that and follow through the next boxes, specifying state and county. You can look at data for all Census Tracts or to choose a subset. Click the “Add to Your Selection” button for the relevant tracts you want. In the upper left of the full page, you will see a “Your Selections” box where the CTs you select will be listed. When finished, be sure to close down the “Select Geographies” dialogue box. Then you will see the list of data tables available for the CT’s you have chosen.
As an aside, if you are having trouble obtaining the list of CT’s for your analysis, for example, to develop a list of CTs in a Primary Trade Area (the area where most of the sales will originate), there are several places on the web to find maps that link census tracts numbers with a designated area. You can find one set on census.gov. Go to the www.census.gov home page and type into the search block “census tract reference maps”. These are county-based reference maps labeled with the census tract numbers. Follow the instructions. First you input a state; then the counties in that state will come up, listed alphabetically. Click into the county or counties of interest. Depending on the county, one or multiple maps will show in a PDF list. If there are multiple maps, the pdf with the 000 in the title will be the index map. By examining the maps, you will be able to determine the census tract numbers.
Back at the census data tables on American FactFinder, one data table that is particularly helpful is the Households and Families (S1201). This gives the number of households in the Census Tracts. Other useful tables are Educational Attainment (S1501) and Selected Economic Characteristics (choose one from various 5 year estimates). Median Household Income is in the Economic Characteristics table. Once you click on the table, the data for your selected CT’s appears on your screen. There is also an option to download as an Excel table or PDF. Each table is large and sometimes information you might want, such as the population over 25 with a Bachelor’s degree or higher, is well down the page.
The data accessible through the Census Bureau portal is immense. The above examples are just a glimpse in how a small part of it can be accessed.
The second useful source of publicly available date is the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) accessed through the United States Department Labor, specifically the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Just type “Consumer Expenditure Survey” into your search engine and you should be able to get there quickly. On the left-hand side of the CE homepage are several options for finding data. The CE Tables are particularly useful for looking at specific expenditures. There are both Mid-Year and Annual Tables available. Look at the Annual Tables and scroll down to the Current Aggregate Expenditure Shares Tables. Explore the Region of Residence Tables. For example those helping to develop food cooperatives, the information for Food at home expenditures (scroll down the table until you see Food) can be useful in estimating potential store revenues. There is data for four regions – Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Expenditure information is provided for many, many categories.
One example of how a developer doing a feasibility study for a food cooperative startup might use information from the above two sources would be in revenue projections. By finding the number of households in the Primary Trade Area (PTA) through the CT data and locating the average expenditure for food at home for your region, you can multiply the two together. This gives a gross estimate of the total grocery market in the PTA. Of course the prospective startup will be targeting only a percent of these total sales. How to further decrease the total market estimate into a more reasonable number, applicable to a food cooperative startup potential sales, is beyond the scope of this article.
By: Cathy A. Smith
Technical Assistance (TA) Agreements clarify the relationship between the development center (or the developer) and the client. The legally binding agreements are important because they limit the liability of the center or developer. The business of providing business advice can be risky. Clarity on how much liability is attached to the developer’s advice is essential to a technical assistance agreement.
KDC enters into a TA agreement with all of its clients for whom significant service is provided. This is when KDC is going to have a long-term, ongoing relationship with the client. For example, one or two phone calls concerning a specific development topic does not trigger a TA agreement.
A generic example of a Technical Assistance Agreement, very similar to what KDC uses, is provided at the following link: TA Agreement. This is offered only for information purposes and KDC provides no warranty of its completeness or legal robustness. We have developed this format over a number of years, striving to balance completeness and readability.
There are 19 clauses within the agreement. They cover, among other things, the term of the agreement, the services to be provided, governing laws, liability limitations, and confidentiality. The agreement is a legal contract that protects both the client and the service provider should there be a conflict or breach of contract. It should offer protection and limit the liability of both parties.
Each agreement must be adapted to address the specific tasks, a time frame and the level(s) of service being provided to the client. Agreements are usually set for a term of 12 months to allow for annual revisions to reflect the new stage of business and the corresponding services that will be provided. Agreements should also state the payment terms to be established as well as what products or information will be provided to the client during the term of the contract. If possible, your lawyer should review and approve the contract before you enter into it. Agreements, when written properly will benefit both the client and the service provider providing direction, goals and outcomes within a set period of time.
By: Cathy Smith
Education is important for any cooperative developer. Cooperation Works! (CW!) the cooperative of cooperative developers and Centers offers a three part developer sequence. The programs aid in the understanding of the cooperative business model and the essential steps for development. Session One and Two are five days of intensive study in Wisconsin. This also provides a great opportunity for networking with other developers. Session Three happens on line and is an intensive five days of financial modeling.
The CW! Training Program is a rigorous course for participants to develop the skills to start a new cooperative and to assist groups in starting cooperative enterprises. The curriculum includes the essentials of the following:
• Effective cooperative business development
• Cooperative governance and management
• Tools for group ownership in building long-term success
• Financial analysis and pro forma financial statements for new co-ops
This program has been designed to deliver the best of what has been learned in the field of cooperative business development. The program courses may be taken in any order. A summary of each Session follows:
Session One: The Steps to Start a New Cooperative Business
This first session covers the skills and key development steps for the successful development of cooperative businesses. Specific areas of study include:
1. Cooperative History and Principles
2. Comparative Business Models
3. The Critical Steps of Co-op Development
4. Feasibility Analysis
5. Business Planning
6. Building Stakeholder Capacity
7. Governance and Oversight
8. Case Study Analysis
Session Two: Key Ingredients for New Cooperative Business Success
Cooperative enterprises and how to build group capacity for long-term success. Case studies of four existing cooperative businesses are used to highlight the concepts and provide practical application of principles. Areas of study include:
1. Co-op Legal Structures and Taxation
2. Co-op Finance, Equity and Capitalization
3. Group Decision Making and Strategic Planning
4. Co-op Management Oversight
5. Keys to Achieving Operational Success
Session Three: Financial Analysis for Cooperative Start-Ups
Financial modeling and analysis used in developing feasibility studies and business plans for start-up cooperatives. Each student must complete a set of pro forma financial statements to pass the course. Areas of study include:
1. Components of financial analysis for start-up businesses
2. Financial success including liquidity, profitability and solvency
3. Revenue models, income statements, balance sheets and cash flow analysis
4. Financial projections and ratio analysis
For more information contact Audrey Malan at 307-655-9162 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
By: Cathy Smith
KDC is concerned with the holistic reality of the regional economy and the critical contributions of agriculture to regional food security, economic prosperity and environmental sustainability. Much of KDC’s work involves clients in the local food system. This connects the rural and urban parts of our economy. The concept of a foodshed is important to understand when considering the local food system and the rural/urban connection.
The term “foodshed” was first introduced by permaculturist Arthur Gets (1991) and leverages the notion of a watershed. A foodshed is a metaphor for the geographical pattern food makes as it travels through marketing channels flowing into a specified location. A foodshed is a theoretical construct with several dimensions including the distance between, a farmer's field and your dinner plate; the amount of processing in between, and structure of the marketing channel through which it flows. Locavores have taken the concept of the foodshed into reality by striving to eat things produced within a 100 mile radius of their foodshed epicenter. This effort is described at www.locavores.com.
Local food is food that is grown within a reasonable distance from where it is eaten. Exactly how the “local” is defined varies with the consumers that buy it. The commonality amongst local food consumers is a commitment to purchase food that ensures social, economic, and environmental sustainability. Buying local food reduces the number of "food miles" between farm and plate, and helps to keep agricultural profits in the local economy. By decreasing the amount of fuel used to move food around, this proximity to food sources increases the environmental sustainability of the system.
Cooperatives have important roles in the local food shed. Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives help farmers to market and distribute their product while Food Cooperatives provide retailing outlets. KDC is helping to development and maintain many food cooperatives in the area, and are supporting the cooperatives in federated efforts; one example is the MidAtlantic Alliance of Cooperatives. There are economies of scale to be gained, especially with respect to sourcing and transporting local food from the farm into the stores and buying clubs.
From a purely urban perspective, KDC has been supporting the development of the Philadelphia Area Cooperative Alliance is a newly formed organization helping all types of cooperatives in the greater Philadelphia area. Leaders of established cooperatives have come together in an alliance to identify ways to work together and create greater efficiencies through cooperation.
This is the third part in a series on qualitative research tools in cooperative development. Part I discussed qualitative research in general and focus groups specifically; and Part II discussed how to field a focus group. In Part III, moderating techniques, analysis tips, and next steps are discussed. First a summary of Part I and II is presented.
Recap from Part I and II
Qualitative research has great use in cooperative development. Through an organized method of gathering information from small-sized samples, the developer can identify strengths and weaknesses of the project; understand potential cooperative members; help to identify the primary trade area; surface potential community conflicts; brainstorm ideas and strategy; investigate brand/service positioning; use it as a pre-survey to develop the hypothesis to be quantified; or in post-survey to explore in-depth the quantitative findings. Focus groups are the most popular form of qualitative research. They are guided discussions in which 8-10 respondents discuss a topic or series of topics in their own words. The group is guided by a moderator and usually lasts 1 ½ to 2 hours. The moderator uses a carefully crafted moderator guide that lays out the questions and potential prompts for “drilling down” into opinions and perspectives.
Recruiting is the single biggest challenge. How to source participants will depend on each group. If you are a development center or consultant providing this service pro bono, the client is going to have to step up and help.
The composition of the groups should be carefully considered. This will depend on the number of groups you are doing. Be sure to have everyone participating sign a form that waives confidentiality and should cover all spoken statements, comments, and ideas captured by audio, visual, or written notes/statements. The moderator role is critical. A good moderator is able to solicit answers quickly and efficiently without introducing bias into the data.
The room set up is important. Ideally there are two areas – one where the participants are greeted and given the release forms to review and sign. This allows the group to mingle ahead of time and the second room or space is where the focus group happens. Use as small a table as everyone can comfortably gather around (including the moderator). There is a balance in that you want to keep everyone in physical proximity to one another, but you also do not want to push people so close that there is irritation at the invasion of personal space. Use tent cards with everyone’s first name. This helps participants address each other – useful in a group where no one knows each other. But mainly the name cards are for the moderator so she or he can keep accurate notes and call on individuals by name without falter. Use a good tape recorder, set in the middle of the room. Recording the group is essential for the analysis.
The Moderator and Seating
Details about the Moderator in Part II are not repeated here (Part I and II can be found at on KDC’s website under the tips for co-op developers in the news and events section.) When choosing a moderator, try to identify someone with experience in doing groups. Contact KDC directly if you want to learn more about hiring a research firm who would provide a moderator as part of their services. Otherwise, chose your moderator carefully. If there are multiple groups, try to have the same moderator do all groups, to eliminate any moderator bias from the data. Remember that a good moderator will not inject her or his opinions or biases into the information coming from the group.
The Moderator usually takes notes but these are often incomplete. At a minimum the moderator’s notes should help identify who is talking on the recording. For quick reference, the moderator often writes the first names of the participants by location to Moderator in a half circle on the top of page 1 of her or his notes. If an Assistant Moderator (AM) is being used with the group, this person sits outside the circle and often has a laptop for note-taking. This can greatly speed up the analysis process, especially is the AM is a good typist.
The ideal seating for a focus group is a circle with the moderator at one end, positioned so that she or he can see all faces in the circle. Being able to read body language is an important skill. If there are any contentious issues that are likely to emerge in the group, a gentle assigning of seats can help balance the energy in the room. This is if there is any advance knowledge about which side of a conflict an individual might verbalize. When participants are allowed to choose their own seat, often the most confrontational person will take a place directly opposite the moderator.
Number of Groups to Field
How many groups are enough? This is a question that comes up in every situation. The quick answer is “do enough groups until you start hearing the same answers to the questions.” Sometimes resources do not allow this to be the case, but ideally one should do a sufficient number of groups to get a full “top of mind” from the target population. Do remember that this is not a technique to gather quantitative data. It is antidotal information gathered within a structured framework. The data cannot be extrapolated but it will be useful for other purposes. With all that said if you do 4 groups with 10 each, at the end of the process you will have heard from 40 people and while this is not a large number, it should be enough to hear nearly the whole range of possible answers and to have an understanding of response intensity.
The group is over and all you have now are the notes from the moderator (and maybe an AM) and a recording of the session. Now is the time for the analysis. The effort and time to do the group will have no value if the results are incomplete, poorly analyzed, or not communicated.
The normal first thing is to do a transcript of the group – this is a written log of what was said in the group. This is done by using the recording and the notes. If notes from an Assistant Moderator are available, the transcript process can be shortened. With good AM notes already in electronic format, all the transcriber has to do is to listen to the tape and fill in the blanks. Otherwise, she or he is typing it in from scratch. This stage takes time. At a minimum, for a 1.5 hour group, the transcribing will take at least 2 hours. Just listening to the recording takes 1.5 hrs. Sometimes, for example with a larger group who is particularly verbal, the transcripts can be a bit overwhelming.
A comment on confidentiality is warranted. Depending on what privacy you promised your participants, be sure to treat the recording and transcripts with respect. The summary is shared with the client, but the transcripts are rarely shared beyond the team doing the focus group. To be sure anonymity is maintained, you can give the participants a code letter or name on the transcripts. That way unless you have the list of participants and their respective code, one cannot match a specific comment on the transcript with who said it.
With the transcripts in hand, the summary phase can begin. The Moderator Guide provides the structure for the summary. Each question is a section and the content is the summary of answers to the question. Group similar answers together. Take the analysis a section at a time and sort the comments into identified themes. The Moderator and/or the transcriber are often in the best position to identify the themes. Be sure to pull out some quotes that highlight the most important answers. As part of the summary, be sure to describe the participants – number men/women, married/single, family size, age, and address are just a few possible categories on which to report.
Take the time to write up a formal summary so that the information can be passed back to the client (if appropriate). It can also be used in feasibility reports or as a reference for follow-up groups.
This depends on what the qualitative research is being used to understand. If it is a start-up cooperative business client, the focus group is probably part of the feasibility study process -- the due diligence process. Opportunities for the business and barriers to success can be surfaced through a focus group. Information from the group will help set the Primary Trade Area for the business and assist in understanding the likely demographics of the market share. This information is also important in the financial modeling part of the feasibility process.
In many cases, the focus groups are followed by or done concurrently with a quantitative survey of likely patrons. The internet allows the efficient use of on-line surveys to reach out to hundreds of individuals. The focus groups can help frame the questions for the survey and can valuable insight into how to structure answers.
By: Cathy Smith, PhD
|Keystone Development Center||
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